The Bacteria

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The main branches of Bacteria mostly arose at once in a "main radiation". There are just a few major groups (Kingdoms or Phyla, depending on your nomenclature) of Bacteria, related by this tree:

The Bacteria

Most of the branches of Bacteria, and certainly most of the branches with lots of known and abundant species, radiation from a single point in the tree, the "main radiation". There are some earlier branches; these are minor groups with few species that are not generally abundant, and they are primitive organisms (short branch length) and mostly thermophilic.

And, of course, lots of other less well-known branches.