Phylogenetic groups at all levels are dominated by uncultivated sequences

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Although it is easy to think of sequences from uncultivated organisms only in terms of the unusual phyla described in this chapter, in reality sequences from uncultivated organisms fall into phylogenetic groups at all levels. Even in well-studied phyla, there are Orders, Classes, Families, and Genera with large numbers of species represented only or largely by sequences from uncultivated organisms. The tree below was generated from an arbitrarily-selected collection of sequences from cultivated and uncultivated organisms within the Family Enterobacteriaceae. These organisms are familiar to ay microbiologist, but there are any number of uncultivated species hidden even within this family.