Tree Interpretation problem set

1. Answer the following questions on this tree:

Q1 tree

a. Which are the two most closely related species?
b. Which is the most primitive of these species?
c. Which of these is probably the outgroup?
d. Which is most distantly related to the Gremlin other than the outgroup specie?
e. Circle the last common ancestor of the Hippogriff and Gremlin.
f. Redraw this tree to scale as a phenogram.

2. Answer the following questions about this tree:

Q2 tree

a. Which are the two most closely related species?
b. Which of these is probably the outgroup?
c. Based on this as the outgroup, circle the last common ancestor of the remaining creatures.
d. Now circle the root of the tree (again, assuming this as the outgroup).
e. Circle the two main groups in this tree (other than the outgroup).
f. Which is most distantly related to the Drosophila other than the outgroup specie?
g. Which specie in this tree is most closely related to Homo?
h. Redraw this tree as a phenogram.

3. Answer the following questions about this tree:

Q3 tree

a. Which organism is the closest relative of Chromatium vinosum?
b. Which organism(s) is/are the outgroup?
c. Where, then, is the root of the tree based on this outgroup? (please circle)
d. What is the evolutionary distance between Thermus thermophilus and Thermomicrobium roseum?
e. What is the evolutionary distance between Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Methanococcus vannielii?
f. Which organism(s) is/are most closely related to Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Thermomicrobium roseum?
g. "EM3" is an unknown organism - what is it's closest relative on this tree?
h. Excluding the outgroup, which is the most primitive organism (or at least sequence) in this tree?
i. Excluding the outgroup, which is the most highly evolved organism (sequence) in this tree?
j. Circle the last common ancestor of Chromatium vinosum and Deinococcus radiodurans.
k. Redraw this tree as a dendrogram